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How Chromium Can Contribute To Maintaining Bone Density

How Chromium Can Contribute To Maintaining Bone Density

Have you ever come across the idea that chromium plays a role in maintaining bone density?

Although it might not be widely known, it's true. Bones are not solely composed of calcium, contrary to what many people might think.

Bones are intricate structures made up of a diverse array of minerals, proteins, and water. The main minerals that constitute the rigid framework of bones are calcium and phosphorus, which form hydroxyapatite crystals.

These minerals are responsible for providing the bones with both strength and hardness. Alongside these primary minerals, bones also contain smaller quantities of other minerals like magnesium, fluoride, sodium, potassium, chromium, and a variety of trace elements.

What are Mineral Composition of Bones


Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body, making up 1-2% of a person's total body weight. The majority of calcium (99%) resides in our bones and teeth. It plays a vital role beyond just maintaining healthy bones. It is fundamental for muscle contractions, blood clotting, nerve function, and heart rhythm.

While calcium is essential for the health and strength of our bones and teeth, it needs the presence of other nutrients for optimal absorption and use. For example, adequate levels of vitamin D are crucial for an efficient amount of calcium to be absorbed from the diet.

If one's diet is lacking in calcium, the body will compensate by leeching calcium from the bones, which can contribute to the development of osteoporosis - a condition characterized by the loss of bone density.


Phosphorus is the second most abundant mineral in the human body after calcium. About 85% of phosphorus, in conjunction with calcium, resides in our bones and teeth in the form of apatite crystals. This contributes to the rigidity and durability of the skeletal structure.

Phosphorus plays numerous roles in the body. It's required for the creation of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), a molecule the body uses to store and transport energy. Phosphorus is also part of DNA, RNA, and phospholipids that make up cell membranes. Its role in bone health is particularly crucial as it helps in the formation and maintenance of bone.

An insufficiency or excessive intake of phosphorus can potentially lead to health issues. Low levels of phosphorus can cause muscle weakness and bone disorders.

On the other hand, high levels can affect the absorption of calcium negatively and may contribute to kidney disease.


Magnesium is a vital mineral for overall health, including bone health. It is involved in the activation of vitamin D, a crucial vitamin necessary for calcium absorption and utilization in the body.

Magnesium also contributes to the crystal formation of bones and influences the activity of osteoblasts (cells responsible for bone formation) and osteoclasts (cells that break down bone tissue). Inadequate magnesium levels might result in reduced bone density and an increased risk of osteoporosis.


Fluoride is a trace mineral that can assist in enhancing bone density, thereby contributing to stronger bones. Furthermore, it plays a significant preventative role in dental health by helping protect teeth from decay, mainly when supplied in appropriate amounts.

Fluoride forms a compound known as fluorapatite when it integrates with bones and teeth, which strengthens and stabilizes tooth enamel, making it more resistant to bacterial acids that cause tooth decay.


Sodium is an essential mineral that influences bone metabolism and is involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus in the body.

While excessive sodium intake can increase calcium loss through excretion, leading to a potential decline in bone health, moderate amounts of sodium are necessary for maintaining overall bone health.

Sodium also maintains electrolyte balance, which is important for the optimal functioning of cells and tissues.


Potassium, like sodium, plays an important role in bone metabolism. Research shows that higher potassium intake may help reduce bone loss, particularly in older adults, by minimizing the amount of calcium excreted through urine.

In addition, potassium helps maintain the acid-base balance in the body, ensuring that bones do not lose calcium due to an overly acidic environment.

Thus, optimal potassium levels are critical in preserving bone health.

Proteins and Water in Bones

Calcium and phosphorus indisputably serve as the primary minerals in the composition of bones, acting as a backbone of our skeletal health. However, a spectrum of other minerals also plays an integral part in the architecture and functionality of bones.

These auxiliary minerals, though present in lesser quantities, significantly influence bone health and resilience. The individual mineral composition of bones, including other elements like magnesium, fluoride, sodium, and potassium, can show slight variabilities, attributable to factors such as age, sex, general health status, and genetic predispositions.

In addition to the mineral components, bones house collagen, a vital protein with fibrous characteristics. Collagen primarily acts as a scaffold on which minerals deposit to form bone.

It contributes to the intricate balance between bone rigidity and flexibility. Aside from providing the bones with the ability to withstand tension, collagen also imparts a degree of considerable elasticity.

This elasticity helps prevent fractures under normal circumstances and plays an essential role in the overall structural integrity and resilience of bones.

Water, although often overlooked in the context of bone composition, forms a significant part of the structural makeup of bones. Hydration is vital for maintaining bone health as it helps sustain their flexibility.

Water accounts for about 10-20% of total bone weight. It serves as a medium for various metabolic activities at the cellular level inside the bones and plays a pivotal role in the exchange of nutrients and waste between bone cells and their surrounding vascular networks.

What are the Unique Properties of Bones

The human body relies on the critical composition and symbiosis of minerals, proteins, and water uniquely found in our bones. This potent combination provides our bones with exceptional properties that enable them to carry out essential roles within our body.

Foremost among these is acting as a supportive framework for our entire structure. Bones serve as the sturdy scaffold that allows us to have form, function, and movement.

These structural elements also provide crucial protection to our internal organs. Think of bones as armor shields, guarding critical organs from potential harm. For instance, the rib cage protects the heart and lungs, while the skull safeguards our brain.

In addition to performing these mechanical roles, bones also play critical biological functions. They specifically partake in the regulation of our body's mineral balance.

Through a process known as bone remodeling, old bone tissues break down and are replaced with new ones, helping maintain a proper balance of minerals such as calcium and phosphorus in the body.

On that note, it's important to address that proper nutrition plays a key role in bone health. Consuming a diet rich in certain nutrients, particularly calcium and phosphorus, is absolutely vital.

These minerals contribute significantly to bone development and strength, and a deficiency in either can lead to bone-related health issues.

Optimal bone health is maintained by a balanced diet, with enough of these vital nutrients to stave off conditions such as osteoporosis. This bone disease, resulting from a lack of adequate nutrient intake, causes a decrease in bone density and increases the risk of fractures. 

What are the Factors That Affect Bone Density

However, aside from the natural aging process, what other factors can contribute to the weakening of bone density? It's true that as time goes by and we grow older, our bones naturally lose density and become thinner due to the cycle of life.

Nevertheless, there are certain key factors which can further contribute to a weakened skeletal system.

Various elements can lead to an accelerated decrease in bone density, ultimately culminating in a condition known as osteoporosis. This degenerative condition is characterized by bones becoming less dense, more porous, and increasingly fragile, thereby raising the likelihood of fractures.

The following are some notable factors that can play a role in the premature decline of bone density:

Dietary Factors

The foods we eat play a significant role in our overall bone health, with insufficient intake of key nutrients such as calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D potentially leading to weaker bones.

Both calcium and phosphorus are central to the robustness of our bones, working in unison to maintain their strength and integrity.

Calcium lends hardness to the bone structure, while phosphorus ensures that calcium is effectively utilized. An inadequate intake of these vital nutrients can make bones more susceptible to fractures and other injuries.

Additionally, vitamin D also plays a significant role in bone health by aiding the absorption of these crucial minerals. Vitamin D acts almost like a facilitator, ensuring efficient absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the foods we consume. In essence, it helps channel these minerals right into the building and strengthening of our bones.

A deficiency in vitamin D can impede this process, leading to poor mineral absorption and, consequently, weaker bones. Therefore, keeping a balanced diet, rich in calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D, is of paramount importance for maintaining optimal bone health.

Lack of these nutrients in our diet could gradually lead to the degradation of our skeletal system, increasing the risk of osteoporosis and other bone diseases.

Hormonal Changes

Our body's endocrine system plays an undeniably significant role in regulating several aspects of our health, including bone density. Particularly, fluctuations in hormonal levels can greatly influence bone health.

In women, the transition to menopause often involves a substantial decrease in estrogen levels. Known as the 'bone-protective' hormone, estrogen plays a pivotal role in maintaining bone density. It does so by controlling the balance between osteoblasts (cells that build bones) and osteoclasts (cells that break down bones).

A decline in estrogen levels during menopause can accelerate bone loss as it disrupts this delicate balance, causing a higher rate of bone breakdown compared to bone formation.

Men, on the other hand, primarily contend with testosterone fluctuations. While not entirely evident, low testosterone levels can have a detrimental effect on bone density. Testosterone is converted into a form of estrogen in men, which then supports bone density.

Hence, lower testosterone levels can lead to a decrease in this bone-protective form of estrogen, contributing to bone density loss. Therefore, it's evident that hormonal changes, whether due to aging or certain medical conditions, can have a profound impact on bone health.

Understanding these shifts can provide crucial insights into how to better manage and mitigate the risks associated with bone density loss.


Our genetic makeup plays a considerable role in our general health, and our bone health is no exception. A family history of osteoporosis can predispose individuals to an increased risk of developing the same condition.

The genes passed down to us from our parents may confer a higher susceptibility to accelerated bone density loss, leading to a more fragile skeletal structure.

Moreover, smaller body frames, often an inherited trait, can contribute further to this risk. Individuals with smaller or thinner frames typically have less bone mass to lose compared to those with larger frames.

This means they might reach a state of bone density criticality, putting them at risk of osteoporosis, faster than someone with more bone mass.

Consequently, these genetic factors can amplify the risk of premature bone density loss. 

Physical Inactivity

A sedentary lifestyle can pose multiple threats to our health, one of the most significant being its detrimental effect on bone health. Weight-bearing and resistance exercises particularly stand out as powerful tools for maintaining and improving bone density.

Our bones are not static; they're living, dynamic structures that are continually breaking down and rebuilding themselves—a process called bone turnover. When we engage in regular physical activity, especially weight-bearing exercises such as walking, jogging, or strength training, we apply stress to our bones.

This cued stress stimulates bone formation by triggering osteoblasts, the cells responsible for bone formation. The result is an increase in bone mass and density, making our bones stronger and more resilient.

On the other hand, a sedentary lifestyle void of such beneficial stress can lead to a slower rate of bone formation. Without the stimulation provided by physical activity, bones may lose density and become weaker over time.

In essence, when weight-bearing or resistance exercises are eliminated from our routine, we neglect a significant stimulus for bone health.

Moreover, physical inactivity can also lead to muscle weakness and poor balance, two factors that indirectly affect bone health by increasing the risk of falls.

Therefore, incorporating regular weight-bearing exercises into your lifestyle can not only help maintain and improve bone health but also enhance overall physical fitness and stability. It's crucial, however, to understand that any new physical activity or exercise regimen should be pursued under appropriate guidance to ensure it's safe, effective, and tailored to individual capabilities and health conditions.

Consultation with health professionals or qualified fitness experts can provide the requisite guidance and support.

Certain Medications

Certain medications contribute significantly to bone density interference. Prolonged use of some of these pharmaceutical products can have an adverse impact, particularly on the skeletal system's robustness.

One such group of medications includes corticosteroids, known widely for their efficacy in managing different inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. 

Corticosteroids work by lowering inflammation in the body, often required to provide relief in conditions marked by an overactive immune system. However, their downside is the interference with the bone remodeling process- an equilibrium between bone formation and resorption.

Long-term use of these medications disrupts this balance, leading to increased bone loss and, ultimately, lower bone density. Over time, this could heighten the risk of osteoporosis, a condition that entails brittle and fragile bones.

Similarly, another group of medications that are associated with bone density issues are anticonvulsants. These are primarily utilized to manage seizures in conditions such as epilepsy.

While they play a crucial role in helping control seizure activity, they also have a less desirable side effect on bone health. The interference is associated with the way anticonvulsants affect the metabolism of vitamin D.

High doses or long-term use can cause a deficiency of this essential vitamin, indispensable for calcium absorption in our body. Calcium, a key mineral component of bones, aids in maintaining their strength.

A deficiency in vitamin D and thereby calcium can result in reduced bone mineral density, accelerating bone loss and boosting the risks associated with it such as fractures and osteopenia.

Medical Conditions

Certain underlying medical conditions have been identified as influential factors that can detrimentally affect bone health, three of which primarily include rheumatoid arthritis, chronic kidney disease, and gastrointestinal disorders.

These conditions not only have significant impacts on their specific system or organ, but also indirectly affect the holistic health of an individual - particularly, the health of our bones.

Rheumatoid arthritis, a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting numerous joints, including those in the hands and feet, contributes to the decline in bone health. The constant inflammation associated with this condition leads to bone loss around the joint tissues.

This happens as inflammation stimulates the production of certain molecules that lead to bone resorption, a process where bones are broken down, consequently decreasing overall bone density.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is another medical condition that indirectly impacts bone health. Kidneys play a crucial role in regulating the balance of phosphorus and calcium in the body – both vital for maintaining healthy bones.

In CKD, the kidneys' ability to balance these minerals is hampered. In trying to maintain a normal balance, other hormones such as the parathyroid hormone can end up causing an excessive release of calcium from bones, hence leading to a decrease in bone density.

Lastly, a category of medical conditions that affects bone health includes gastrointestinal disorders. This group includes Crohn's disease, celiac disease, and inflammatory bowel disease, among others.

These conditions can lead to malabsorption syndromes, where an individual's gastrointestinal tract cannot adequately absorb essential nutrients like calcium and vitamin D.

These are vital nutrients necessary for maintaining bone health with deficiencies leading to a decrease in bone density over time.

Smoking and Excessive Alcohol Consumption

Habits such as smoking and excessive consumption of alcohol have been widely reported to have harmful effects on overall health, with bone health being no exception.

Understanding the relationship between these habits and bone health is essential in educating individuals about the potential risks involved.

Firstly, smoking is one of the primary lifestyle factors identified to have a detrimental impact on bone density.

Studies have consistently outlined a connection between regular tobacco use and a decrease in bone mass. The toxic materials present in cigarettes influence the function of the cells responsible for forming bones – the osteoblasts.

In addition, they affect the body’s capacity to absorb calcium, a mineral essential to the bone-building process. This dual detrimental effect speeds up bone loss and decreases overall bone density.

Over time, the cumulative effect of smoking can result in increased risk of fractures and conditions such as osteoporosis.

As with smoking, excessive alcohol consumption also poses significant risks to bone health. It has been observed that chronic, heavy alcohol intake adversely interferes with the balance of calcium in the body.

Calcium is a crucial nutrient that aids in strengthening bones. Excessive alcohol alters the balance of hormones in the body, which regulate the body's calcium levels and bone repair and renewal processes.

Furthermore, alcohol hinders the production of vitamin D, a critical vitamin that enhances calcium absorption in the body.

Over time, the decrease in calcium absorption, due to chronic alcohol intake, can result in inadequate bone mass and increased risk of fractures.

Low Body Weight

Low body weight, or being underweight as reflected by a low Body Mass Index (BMI), holds a reciprocal relationship to the risk of bone density loss.

It is well established that a delicate balance in maintaining an ideal body weight is not just beneficial for overall health, but is consequential for the state of one's bone health as well.

On one hand, the connection between body weight and bone density has a lot to do with the weight-bearing nature of bones. That is, bones, in carrying the body's weight, maintain their density through regular stimulus from body weight-related pressures.

Therefore, individuals with lower body weight would naturally have less bone mass due to less stimulus from body weight. In such cases, these individuals could be more susceptible to significant bone loss or insufficiency of bone mass, thereby increasing their vulnerability to potential bone fractures or conditions such as osteopenia and osteoporosis.

On the other hand, being underweight might also imply a higher likelihood of nutritional deficiencies, particularly of calcium and Vitamin D. Both calcium and Vitamin D carry crucial roles in the formation and remodeling of bones; having a deficiency in either nutrient could compromise the integrity of an individual's bones over time.

Consequently, a decrease in bone density could lead to not only the increased propensity for fractures but also the acceleration of bone-related illnesses. Furthermore, a low BMI sometimes may be a sign of underlying health conditions or malnutrition, both of which may have implications on one's bone health.

These factors might even contribute to a more rapid depletion of bone mass compared to individuals at a healthier weight range.

Early Menopause or Amenorrhea

Women's reproductive health, particularly their menstrual cycle patterns and the age at which menopause occurs, plays a significant role in their bone health.

Women who experience early menopause or those who have irregular or absent menstrual cycles, a condition known as amenorrhea, are potentially at a higher risk of bone loss.

The relationship between reproductive health and bone density primarily revolves around the hormone estrogen. During the reproductive years, estrogen plays a critical role in building and maintaining bone density in women. This hormone helps regulate the life cycle of bone cells, promoting the activity of cells that build bone (osteoblasts) and inhibiting those that reabsorb bone (osteoclasts).

Therefore, adequate levels of circulating estrogen are important for maintaining bone density.

When a woman enters menopause, estrogen levels decrease significantly. This decline prompts an increase in bone resorption, where bone is broken down faster than it is replaced, leading to overall bone loss. Women who experience early menopause, typically defined as occurring before the age of 45, are particularly at risk.

They experience a longer period of life without the protective effects of estrogen, hence have a higher likelihood of significant bone density loss over time. Similarly, women with amenorrhea, whether due to lower body weight, excessive physical activity, or other health conditions, may also experience lower estrogen levels.

The absence of regular menstrual cycles often signifies a disruption in the balance of reproductive hormones, which can lead to decreased bone density.

Nutritional Deficiencies

Nutritional deficiencies can have a profound impact on bone health. While calcium and vitamin D are typically associated as the primary nutrients essential for maintaining bone density, other nutrients, including vitamin K, magnesium, boron, and many others, play a crucial role in supporting bone structure, function, and overall bone health.

Deficiencies in any of these essential nutrients can contribute to declining bone density and increase the risk for developing bone-related conditions.

Vitamin K is indispensable for its role in bone metabolism. It is involved in the synthesis of proteins that facilitate calcium binding and subsequent support of bone formation.

When vitamin K levels are inadequate, it can inhibit proper bone mineralization, leading to weaker bones, increased fragility, and a heightened risk of fractures.

Magnesium, another vital nutrient, is integral to bone health, primarily since the majority of the body's stored magnesium is found within bones. It is involved in bone formation by enabling the active conversion of vitamin D into a form that can efficiently aid in calcium absorption.

Additionally, magnesium contributes to the maintenance of bone strength by supporting the processes carried out by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, the cells responsible for bone formation and resorption.

Boron, though a trace element, is essential in managing the metabolism of minerals, including calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. It is believed to help diminish calcium and magnesium loss in the urine, thus promoting their availability for bone health.

Boron also assists in the synthesis and action of vitamin D, which plays a vital role in regulating calcium levels necessary for bone building. Although more extensive research is needed to elucidate boron's direct effects on bone health, the available evidence suggests it may contribute to optimal bone health.

What is Chromium’s Role in Supporting Bone Density

The loss of bone density often occurs subtly and over an extended time, with noticeable symptoms frequently not appearing until a fracture happens.

Not commonly discussed but crucial nonetheless, are the trace elements that reinforce bone density. One such trace element is chromium, which has been observed to contribute significantly to bone health support.

Chromium plays a prominent role in the metabolic breakdown and assimilation of all macronutrients, namely fats, carbohydrates, and proteins. It is particularly notable for its essential role in regulating glucose tolerance.

Chromium aids in the transportation of glucose into cells and enhances insulin sensitivity, thereby facilitating more efficient glucose utilization.

Beyond this, chromium is necessary to catalyze certain enzymes, chiefly phosphoglucomutase. Phosphoglucomutase is a critical enzyme involved in starch biosynthesis, which, in turn, helps regulate glucose metabolism. The activation of phosphoglucomutase by chromium is vital in maintaining balanced glucose levels.

Therefore, while chromium's role in bone density support may often be overlooked, its function in nutrient metabolism and glucose regulation suggests a potential indirect impact on bone health.

In addition to its notable role in nutrient metabolism, chromium has also shown promise in protecting against deteriorating eye health conditions, such as glaucoma. Glaucoma is a disorder often associated with various conditions, including diabetes, characterized by a buildup of fluid in the eyes. This buildup imposes unnecessary pressure on the optic nerve, retina, and lens, which can, over time, cause blindness.

Moreover, chromium has demonstrated its potential in mitigating the leaching of calcium from our bones and teeth, a process that could occur owing to fluctuations in blood sugar levels.

These fluctuations can interfere with the body's nervous system and potentially lead to a decrease in bone density.

Therefore, the intake of adequate amounts of chromium, either through diet or supplementation when required, plays a role not only in maintaining metabolic processes but also in preserving bone density and eye health.

What are the Symptoms of Chromium Deficiency

As a trace element often overlooked in dietary planning, chromium deficiency can result in a range of physical symptoms and impact overall health.

Recognizing the signs of chromium deficiency is essential to promptly address inadequate intake and minimize potential consequences. Below are various symptoms of chromium deficiency:

  • Blood sugar imbalances
  • Food cravings, particularly carbohydrates like sweets and starches
  • An inability to lose weight
  • High cholesterol
  • Brain fog
  • Fatigue
  • Sudden weight loss or weight gain
  • Listing of various symptoms of chromium deficiency

Though chromium is not a predominant mineral that constitutes bone structure and may not play as significant a role as calcium, phosphorus, or magnesium, some studies suggest that chromium could be instrumental in maintaining existing bone density, as previously elaborated.

The importance of chromium in bone health may not be primary, but its contribution should not be underestimated.

Studies about Chromium’s Role in Bone Health

One research study highlighted that chromium could reduce the urinary excretion of hydroxyproline, an amino acid, as well as calcium in postmenopausal women, resulting in decreased bone breakdown.

It was also documented that chromium aided in elevating serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), an essential hormone playing a significant role in preserving bone density in postmenopausal women.

An additional study examined the chromium concentrations in the knee joint bone in men and women. The findings demonstrated that women had higher levels of chromium within their skeletal structure, further emphasizing the necessity of Chromium for maintaining bone density.

Given the metabolic variances between genders, understanding that nutritional requirements can differ due to hormonal and structural differences is paramount.

Finally, another research article established a connection between blood sugar imbalances and the development of osteoporosis. The study showed a consistent association between type 2 diabetes and lower lumbar bone density across all study models, regardless of gender. Hence, the stress caused by blood sugar dysregulation - a condition that can often be mitigated through chromium supplementation - can further exacerbate bone density loss as the body tries to derive energy.


In conclusion, bones are intricate structures consisting of various minerals, proteins, and water, not just calcium as commonly presumed.

Chromium, although not a principal mineral in bones, plays a vital role in maintaining bone density, particularly by stabilizing blood sugar levels. Absence of crucial elements like Chromium may contribute to bone density loss over time.

A balanced diet, addressing individual nutritional needs and taking into account factors such as age and health conditions, is essential in preserving bone health.

Notably, recent research indicates how supplementing with trace elements like Chromium can prove beneficial for our skeletal health, especially for postmenopausal women and those grappling with blood sugar imbalances.

Hence, enlightening ourselves with such knowledge and taking proactive steps towards maintaining bone health can significantly reduce the risk of bone-related conditions, paving the way for a healthier future.

For those eager to ascertain their chromium levels, conducting a Hair Tissue Mineral Analysis (HTMA) is the most effective method.

We conveniently offer this service on our website. If you're already equipped with knowledge about your chromium needs and are looking for a supplement, we have an excellent option for you.

Presenting our high-quality product, Upgraded Chromium, which can be conveniently purchased from our online store, designed to meet your chromium requirements safely and effectively.

Barbara Madimenos
Hair Tissue Mineral Analysis Practitioner
Functional Diagnostic Nutrition Practitioner
Integrative Nutrition Coach

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